…and How They Support Wildlife
(we’re working on this page)
What is the difference between trees and shrubs? “Generally, trees are over 20 feet tall and have trunks more than 2 inches in diameter at 4.5 feet about the ground. Shrubs are smaller than trees and often have many small, woody, bark covered stems rising from the base.” 
The way we see it, the biggest differences are: 1) shrubs are smaller than trees and easier to plant and prune, 2) they are usually an under-story to trees and 3) shrubs are usually denser.
Shrubs have the same benefits as trees with regard to providing food, shelter and places to hide. In addition, because they are denser and lower, they can provide wildlife corridors and safe harbor to many different kinds of wildlife.
Some birds, e.g. hawks and owls prefer to nest very high up, so trees would be their preference. Others, such as Northern Cardinals  and Carolina Wrens , prefer to nest lower and in more of a thicket like shrubs.
And, just like with trees, favor native plants when selecting shrubbery.
Annuals and Perennials
We’re really talking about ‘gardening for wildlife’ here, and there is an unlimited supply of excellent material on this subject. Here are some things that have helped organize our information gathering:
Decide who you want to attract. aaa
Diversity is good. aaa
Plant for all seasons. aaa
Plant for multi-purpose. aaa
Plant things to be eaten. aaa
Use natives when possible. aaa
Stay away from chemicals. aaa
 National Park Service: Trees and Shrubs
 Utah State University Extension Service: What Is a Tree?
 Cornell – All About Birds: Northern Cardinal Habitat
 Cornell – All About Birds: Carolina Wren Habitat